A collaborative adaptive spatial planning framework under a landscape ecology perspective: toward a pattern:process:design paradigm.

Authors and Affiliations: 

Javier BABí ALMENAR (1), Benedetto RUGANI (1), Tim BREWER (2)

(1) RDI Unit on Life Cycle Sustainability and Risk Assessment (LiSRA) / Environmental Research & Innovation (ERIN) department / Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST) - 41 Rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux, Luxembourg (e-mails: javier.babialmenar@list.lu; benedetto.rugani@list.lu)

(2) School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, MK43 0AL Cranfield, United Kingdom (e-mail: t.brewer@cranfield.ac.uk)

Corresponding author: 
Javier Babí Almenar

In the past decade, the study of ecosystem services has extended its influence into spatial planning and landscape ecology, becoming integrated with the existing areas of concern of both as a relevant issue (e.g. [1-3]). Their mutual interest in ecosystems services offers an opportunity to enhance the saliency, credibility, and legitimacy of landscape ecology thinking and tools on spatial planning issues [4], moving towards a pattern:process:design paradigm [4]. This paper proposes a collaborative adaptive spatial planning framework developed by making use of landscape ecology thinking and tools. The framework advocates an upgrade of the term ecosystem services, to landscape services [5], and its interrelation with the concept of nature-based solutions [6] for spatial planning work. These changes permit the clarification of terminology during interdisciplinary projects [5]; the integration of relevant services excluded from ecosystem services (anthropogenic services); a clear statement that services are not dependent only in single ecosystems, landscape configuration matters [7-8]; and to integrate tangible elements (nature-based solutions) stressing the utility of ecosystem services [9], that aids the understanding and use by decision makers, planners, and other stakeholders. Four phases (characterisation, assessment, design, and monitoring) and three concepts (character, service, and value) are key to this framework. In addition, landscape metrics are proposed as preferred indicators to better understand character-services relations and public participation techniques are integrated in all the phases to facilitate active stakeholders’ engagement. The period of activity of scientific and design professionals overlap in all four phases. This permits the breakdown of disciplinary segregation, making it easier to develop adaptive plans and solutions by using collaborative approaches.


Abstract References:

[1] Harris, J. and Tewdwr-Jones, M. 2010. Ecosystem Services and Planning. Town & Country Planning, May 2010: 222-226
[2] Scott, A.J. and Carter, C. 2011. Should spatial planning jump into bed with ecosystems services? New theoretical developments from an exciting liaison. Conference of New Perspectives on Planning Theory, University of the West of England, Bristol
[3] Wu, J. 2013. Key concepts and research topics in landscape ecology revisited: 30 years after the Allerton Park Workshop. Landscape Ecology, 28: 1-11
[4] Nassauer, J.I & Opdam, P. 2008. Design in science: extending the landscape ecology paradigm. Landscape Ecology, 23: 633-644.
[5] Termorshuizen & Opdam. 2009. Landscape services as a bridge between landscape ecology and sustainable development. Landscape Ecology, 24: 1037-1052
[6] European Commission. 2015. Towards an EU research and innovation policy agenda for nature-based solutions and re-naturing cities. Final Report of the Horizon 2020 expert group on nature-based solutions and re-naturing cities. Brussels
[7] Bastian, O., Grunewald, K., Syrbe, R.U., Walz, U., Wende, W. 2014. Landscape services: the concept and its practical relevance. Landscape Ecology, 29: 1463-1479.
[8] Frank, S., Fürst, C., Koschke, L., Makeschin, F. 2012. A contribution towards a transfer of the ecosystem service concept to landscape planning using landscape metrics. Ecological Indicators, 21: 30-38.
[9] Potschin, M., Kretsch, C., Haines-Young, R., Furman, E., Berry, P., Baró, F. 2016. Nature-based solutions. In: Potschin, M. and Jax, K. eds.: OpenNESS Ecosystem Services Reference Book. EC FP7 Grant Agreement no.308428.

For extended references regarding the whole framework contact the corresponding author.

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