In the past decade, the study of ecosystem services has extended its influence into spatial planning and landscape ecology, becoming integrated with the existing areas of concern of both as a relevant issue (e.g. [1-3]). Their mutual interest in ecosystems services offers an opportunity to enhance the saliency, credibility, and legitimacy of landscape ecology thinking and tools on spatial planning issues , moving towards a pattern:process:design paradigm . This paper proposes a collaborative adaptive spatial planning framework developed by making use of landscape ecology thinking and tools. The framework advocates an upgrade of the term ecosystem services, to landscape services , and its interrelation with the concept of nature-based solutions  for spatial planning work. These changes permit the clarification of terminology during interdisciplinary projects ; the integration of relevant services excluded from ecosystem services (anthropogenic services); a clear statement that services are not dependent only in single ecosystems, landscape configuration matters [7-8]; and to integrate tangible elements (nature-based solutions) stressing the utility of ecosystem services , that aids the understanding and use by decision makers, planners, and other stakeholders. Four phases (characterisation, assessment, design, and monitoring) and three concepts (character, service, and value) are key to this framework. In addition, landscape metrics are proposed as preferred indicators to better understand character-services relations and public participation techniques are integrated in all the phases to facilitate active stakeholders’ engagement. The period of activity of scientific and design professionals overlap in all four phases. This permits the breakdown of disciplinary segregation, making it easier to develop adaptive plans and solutions by using collaborative approaches.
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For extended references regarding the whole framework contact the corresponding author.